Problem 8  Count Unival Trees
The problem statement is as follows:
A unival tree (which stands for "universal value") is a tree where all nodes under it have the same value. > Given the root to a binary tree, count the number of unival subtrees.
For example, the following tree has 5 unival subtrees:
0 / \ 1 0 / \ 1 0 / \ 1 1
NOTE: All the code in this post, including this writeup itself, can be found or generated from the GitHub repository.
Solution
The solution has two major parts:
 The data model, which uses a "classical" representation of a tree.
 The algorithms, which uses a depthfirst search.
Assumptions
The solution makes the following assumptions:
 Each tree is a full binary tree.
 The tree is not deep enough that it will cause a stack overflow (as part of a depthfirst search algorithm).
 Instead of making the data structure generic,
Branch
es andLeaf
s of aTree
hold a boolean as their value. Making this value an integer or even a generic type adds complexity without adding any value to the final solution.
According to Wikipedia, a full binary tree is defined as follows:
A full binary tree (sometimes referred to as a proper or plane binary tree) is a tree in which every node has either 0 or 2 children. Another way of defining a full binary tree is a recursive definition. A full binary tree is either:
 A single vertex.
 A tree whose root node has two subtrees, both of which are full binary trees.
Data model
Here is the data structure used to hold the Tree
:
pub enum Tree {
Leaf(bool),
Branch(bool, Box<Tree>, Box<Tree>),
}
The subtrees are Box
ed so that the compiler knows the size of a Branch
when one is created.
Algorithm
The solution performs a depthfirst search to find unival trees, going down
the "left" side of the tree first. Each function call takes a tree,
specifically a Box<Tree>
, as input. The output is a tuple consisting of
an Option
and an integer, (Option<bool>, i32)
. If the Option
is
holding a value, it indicates that the subtree which was analyzed is a
unival tree and the value represents the boolean value of that unival tree.
The integer represents the number of unival trees found so far as part of
the search.
pub(in crate) fn depth_first_search_helper(
tree: Box<Tree>,
) > (Option<bool>, i32) {
match *tree {
Tree::Leaf(x) => (Option::from(x), 1),
Tree::Branch(x, lt, rt) => {
// Count the number of univals along the left child.
let (l_unival, l_count) = depth_first_search_helper(lt);
// Count the number of univals along the right child.
let (r_unival, r_count) = depth_first_search_helper(rt);
match (l_unival, r_unival) {
// If the left or right subtrees don't have the same value, then
// just send over any counts from both subtrees.
(None, _) => (None, l_count + r_count),
(_, None) => (None, l_count + r_count),
// If the left and subtrees both have the same values within their
// respective subtrees, check if the two subtrees have the same
// value and if it matches the current node.
(Some(lv), Some(rv)) =>
if lv == rv && lv == x {
(Some(x), l_count + r_count + 1)
} else {
(None, l_count + r_count)
},
}
}
}
}
Testing
This code was tested using the example provided by the original problem and by using propertybased testing. Unfortunately, since there is only one implementation of the algorithm, it is difficult to independently verify the results. The propertybased testing checked for two main properties:
 Number of unival tress > 0
 Number of unival tress >= number of leaves in the tree.
Benchmarking
The solution was benchmarked in two ways:
 Execution time was benchmarked using Criterion.rs.
 Memory usage was benchmarked using Valgrind Massif
Strategy
To benchmark the application, I used input values from 1 to 20 to indicate
the number of levels in the input's tree. Values, i.e. the bool
stored
within each node, were picked randomly using the rand
package.
For benchmarking purposes, the system produces "perfect" binary trees, i.e.
binary trees where all interior nodes are Branch
es and all Leaf
s have
the same depth. Even though the answer (in terms of unival trees) will vary
for each execution, the number of nodes that are being iterated will remain
the same. This may produce some variance in results, but could potentially
reveal anomalies over multiple benchmark runs. For completely deterministic
results, some strategies include using the same values for all nodes or
alternating values by depth.
Results
The following line chart depicts CPU usage against the number of elements in the tree.
The following chart depicts memory usage against the number of elements in the tree.
Conclusion
This project marked a few "firsts" for me:

Using cargomake to manage builds, documentation, and benchmarks. I expect to use it a lot more going forward.

Using Valgrind Massify to benchmark memory usage. I also learned that massifvisualizer and ms_print interpret "peaks" differently in the snapshots, leading to different understanding of program behavior when it comes to memory usage. Personally, I prefer massifvisualizer because it correctly identified the snapshots with the greatest memory usage (as a sum of heap and stack space).

Using Rust to quickly generate recursive data structures without prototyping them in another language first (such as F#). I hope this is a sign that I am getting at least a little more comfortable with the language.
I originally wrote out the solution on a piece of paper while on a long flight (using pseudocode), and I'm glad to see that the algorithm I wrote there worked with minimal changes being required. Converting that pseudocode into Rust was a lot of fun, and there was a decent amount of wrestling with the compiler to get this to work. However, it was a good challenge and I'm looking forward to more.
See you in the next one!
Appendix A  Chart data
The following table shows the data used to create the above memory benchmark chart in Gnumeric. All numbers are in bytes, except the element count.
Elements  Total (B)  Useful Heap  Extra Heap  Stack 

2  167,779,000  100,665,510  67,109,042  4,448 
4  167,779,728  100,665,984  67,109,232  4,512 
8  167,780,584  100,666,602  67,109,574  4,408 
16  167,782,000  100,667,529  67,109,895  4,576 
32  167,783,744  100,668,591  67,110,633  4,520 
64  167,787,264  100,670,821  67,111,739  4,704 
128  167,792,448  100,673,928  67,113,816  4,704 
256  167,803,688  100,680,746  67,118,118  4,824 
512  167,822,000  100,691,820  67,125,508  4,672 
1,024  167,862,000  100,716,227  67,140,941  4,832 
2,048  167,939,936  100,762,825  67,172,023  5,088 
4,096  168,107,136  100,863,087  67,238,897  5,152 
8,192  168,370,928  101,021,429  67,344,475  5,024 
16,384  169,037,368  101,421,288  67,611,056  5,024 
32,768  169,893,848  101,935,562  67,953,382  4,904 
65,536  172,712,472  103,626,428  69,080,636  5,408 
131,072  178,122,752  106,872,547  71,244,733  5,472 
262,144  186,988,728  112,193,353  74,790,223  5,152 
524,288  208,617,856  125,170,799  83,441,857  5,200 
1,048,576  249,538,088  149,722,922  99,809,918  5,248 